• Mrs. Huffer’s US History

    AMI Assignments

              Per the 2017-18 Alternative Methods of Instruction Plan (AMI) for the Lonoke School District, students will be provided a packet of work that will further the learning for students through instruction maintenance.  Students will be working toward reinforcement and extension of power standards already introduced.  This model is being implemented to help minimize opportunities for students to “forget” what they have learned during an outage.

                A students’ attendance will be determined as “present” on an approved AMI day if he/she submits the assigned AMI work upon returning to school or if the packet was not available to the student before the AMI day was declared, the student will have 4 days to complete it and return the work to his/her teacher.  If work is not returned, the student will be counted absent (unexcused) for that AMI designated day and will receive a 0/F for the work.


    US History AMI Assignments

    January 12, 2018

    January 16, 2018

    January 17, 2018


    Friday, Jan. 12th:  Students will complete the project on Canals, Rivers, and Roads.

     Tuesday, Jan. 16th:  Students will review  Lesson 1 & 2 in the text and answer guided reading questions Economic Independence and Moving West. A copy of the chapter text is attached below.   Students may use their login to access the full text book online if needed.  https://connected.mcgraw-hill.com

    Password: SCHOOL08

     Wednesday, Jan. 17th:   Students will review Lesson 3 in the text and complete the Cause/Effect assignment on Unity and Sectionalism.

    This packet is DUE Tuesday, January 23, 2018.

    LESSON 1

    A Growing Economy

    ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS How does geography influence the way people live?


    The Industrial Revolution of the late 1700s changed how people lived and worked.

    Industrial Growth

     How did new technology affect the way things were made?

    In colonial times, most Americans lived in the same place that they worked, which was usually a farm. When they wanted or needed something, they made it. Using their hands and simple tools, people made much of their own furniture, farm equipment, household items, and clothing.

    In the mid-1700s, people began producing goods through new methods. In Great Britain, inventors built machines that did some of the work involved in cloth making, such as spinning thread. These new machines ran on the power of flowing water. British cloth makers built factories, called mills, along rivers. In the mills, they installed large numbers of machines. To tend the machines, mill owners paid people wages, regular payment of money in return for work. People began to leave their homes and farms to work in the mills and collect wages. This historic change is so important that it is known as the Industrial Revolution.

    The Industrial Revolution in the United States

    The Industrial Revolution reached the United States around 1800. Changes began in New England because of its geography. First, New England's poor soil made farming difficult. People willingly gave up farm work to earn wages elsewhere. Second, New England's many rivers and streams offered the waterpower needed to run factory machinery. Third, the area had many ports. These ports allowed the shipping in of raw materials, such as cotton, and the shipping out of finished goods, such as cloth.

    New Inventions

    At the heart of the Industrial Revolution was technology. First, new machines changed the way people made cloth. Inventions such as the water frame and spinning jenny spun thread, and the power loom wove the thread into cloth. Compared to making thread or cloth by hand, the machines saved time and money.

    Other inventions followed. In 1793 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. The word gin is short for "engine." It quickly and easily removed the seeds from picked cotton and allowed a huge increase in cotton production.


    LESSON 1

    A Growing Economy

    ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS How does geography influence the way people live?


    Whitney later accepted the task of making 10,000 muskets in two years for the government. At that time, skilled workers made muskets and other items one at a time. They made each part individually, and each weapon was unlike any other. Whitney made musket parts in large numbers. Each part was identical to others of its type. Even unskilled workers could then assemble a musket quickly. Plus, if a musket broke, a soldier could quickly replace the bad part with another that fit. Whitney's idea of interchangeable parts changed manufacturing forever.

    The Rise of Factories

    In 1790 Congress passed a patent law to protect the rights of inventors. A patent gives an inventor the sole legal right to make money from an invention for a certain period of time.

    The British also tried to protect their inventions. One law prohibited textile workers from sharing technology or leaving the country. Still, a few British workers brought these secrets to the United States. One such worker was Samuel Slater. He memorized the design of the machines used in the British factory in which he worked.

    In the 1790s, Slater built copies in the United States of British machines that made cotton thread. Slater's mill marked an important step in the Industrial Revolution in the United States.

    Francis Cabot Lowell improved on Slater's mill in 1814. Lowell's Massachusetts textile, or cloth, factory not only made thread, it also wove the thread into cloth. Lowell began the factory system, in which all manufacturing steps are combined in one place.

    Free Enterprise

    The capitalist economic system of the United States helped spur industrial growth. In capitalism, individuals and businesses own property and decide how to use it. The people—not the government—control capital, which includes the buildings, land, machines, money, and other items used to create wealth.


    LESSON 1

    A Growing Economy

    ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS How does geography influence the way people live?


    We also use the term free enterprise to describe the American economic system. People are free to work wherever they wish and to buy, sell, and produce whatever they want. The major elements of free enterprise are economic freedom, profit, private property, and competition. Business owners produce the products they think will sell the best and make the most profit. Businesses compete for customers with low prices and high quality. This competition helps push businesses to improve.

    Describing How did New England's physical geography support the growth of industries?


    Making Comparisons

    Working in a factory was very different from working and living on a farm. Think about how working for wages changed the lives of people who had been used to making most of the goods they needed. How do you think life was different for the women in the picture below? For more about making comparisons, review Thinking Like a Historian.

    Agriculture Grows

    Why did agriculture remain the leading occupation of Americans in the 1800s?

    While many New Englanders went to work in factories in the early 1800s, most Americans still lived and worked on farms. In the Northeast, farms were small, so a family could do all the necessary work. Farmers in the Northeast usually sold their products locally.

    Agriculture moved west along with American settlers. Western farmers in the region north of the Ohio River found land that could support a thriving agriculture. Many of these farmers concentrated on raising pork and cash crops such as corn and wheat.

    In the South, cotton production rose sharply. The demand for cotton grew steadily as textile factories appeared. In addition, the cotton gin allowed planters to grow cotton over a much wider area. Southern farmers seeking new land moved west to plant the valuable crop. Between 1790 and 1820, cotton production soared from 3,000 to 300,000 bales per year in the South.

    The success and spread of cotton created a huge demand for enslaved workers. Trade in enslaved Africans expanded. Between 1790 and 1810, the number of enslaved Africans in the United States rose from about 700,000 to 1.2 million.

    Determining Cause and Effect What are some of the significant effects of increased cotton production in the South?


    LESSON 1

    A Growing Economy

    ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS How does geography influence the way people live?


    Economic Independence

    How did the growth of factories and trade affect cities?

    Small investors—such as shopkeepers, merchants, and farmers—provided the money necessary to build most new businesses. These people invested money in hopes of earning profits if the businesses were successful. Low taxes, minimum government regulations, and competition encouraged people to invest in new industries.

    Growth of Corporations

    In the 1830s, changes in the law paved the way for the growth of corporations. A corporation is a type of business that can have many owners. Because of their legal status, corporations can grow to a large size. They sell stock—shares of ownership in a company—to raise the money to build factories and expand their business. Large corporations began to appear in this era, and their great size helped drive industrialization.

    Cities Grow Up

    The growth of factories and trade led to the growth of towns and cities. Many cities developed along rivers because factories could take advantage of the waterpower and easily ship goods to markets. Older cities such as New York, Boston, and Baltimore also grew as centers of commerce and trade.

    Along New York City's South Street, shipping piers extended for 3 miles (5 km). One traveler wrote of the busy waterfront:

    "Every thought, word, look, and action of the multitude seemed to be absorbed by commerce."

    —from The Growing Years by Margaret L. Coit

    To the west, towns such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Louisville were located on major rivers. As farmers in the West shipped more products by water, these towns grew rapidly.


    LESSON 1

    A Growing Economy

    ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS How does geography influence the way people live?


    Cities and towns looked different from modern urban areas. They featured wood and brick buildings and unpaved streets. Barnyard animals often roamed freely. There were no sewers to carry away waste, so diseases such as cholera and yellow fever were a threat. Fire was another danger. Sparks from a fireplace could easily ignite wooden buildings. Fires could be disastrous since few cities had organized fire companies. Yet cities offered many opportunities, such as a variety of jobs and steady wages. As cities grew, residents built libraries, museums, and shops for people to enjoy during their leisure time. For many, the jobs and attractions of city life outweighed the dangers.

    Analyzing Why were rivers important for the growth of cities?






    LESSON 2

    Moving West

    ESSENTIAL QUESTION How does geography influence the way people live?


    Settling the West led to improvements in transportation that helped the nation grow and prosper.

    Headed West

    What helped increase the movement of people and goods?

    In 1790 the first census—the official count of a population—revealed that there were nearly 4 million Americans. At that time, most of these people still lived in the narrow strip of land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. That pattern, however, was changing. For years, a few rugged American settlers had been crossing the Appalachian Mountains and settling in western lands. Now, a steady stream of settlers began moving west.

    Daniel Boone and the Wilderness Road

    Explorer and pioneer Daniel Boone was among the early western pioneers. In 1769 he explored a Native American trail through the Appalachian Mountains. Called Warriors' Path, it led Boone through a break in the mountains—the Cumberland Gap. Beyond the gap lay the gentle hills of a land now called Kentucky. For two years, Boone explored the area's dense forests and lush meadows.

    In 1775 Boone rounded up 30 skilled foresters to make the trail easier to cross for pioneers migrating west. Boone's crew widened Warriors' Path, cleared rocks from the Cumberland Gap, cut down trees in Kentucky, and marked the trail. The new Wilderness Road, as it came to be known, served as the main southern highway from the eastern states to the West. More than 100,000 people traveled it between 1775 and 1790.

    Building Roadways

    The nation needed good inland roads for travel and to ship goods. Private companies built many turnpikes, or toll roads. Tolls, or fees paid by travelers, helped pay the cost of building them. Many roads had a base of crushed stone. In some areas workers built "corduroy roads." These roads had a surface made up of logs laid side by side, like the ridges of corduroy cloth.

    Ohio became a state in 1803. The new state asked the federal government to build a road to connect it with the East. In 1806 Congress approved funds for a national road to the West, though it took five more years for members to agree on the route.

    Work on the project began in 1811 in Cumberland, Maryland. The start of the War of 1812 with Great Britain halted construction. As a result, the road's first section, which ran from Maryland to Wheeling in present-day West Virginia, did not open until 1818.



    LESSON 2

    Moving West

    ESSENTIAL QUESTION How does geography influence the way people live?


    The route closely followed that of a military road George Washington had built in 1754. It eventually reached Ohio and then Vandalia, Illinois. Congress viewed the road as vital to military readiness but did not take on any other road-building projects.

    Traveling on Rivers

    River travel was far more comfortable than travel by road, which was often rough and bumpy. Also, boats or river barges could carry far larger loads of farm products or other goods.

    River travel had two big drawbacks, however. First, most major rivers in the eastern region flowed in a north-south direction, while most people and goods were headed east or west. Second, while traveling downstream was easy, moving upstream against the current was slow.

    In the 1780s and 1790s, boat captains were already using steam engines to power boats in quiet waters. These early engines, however, did not have enough power to overcome the strong currents and winds found in large rivers, lakes, or oceans.

    The Clermont's First Voyage

    In 1802 Robert Livingston, a political and business leader, hired Robert Fulton to build a steamboat with a powerful engine. Livingston wanted the steamboat to carry cargo and passengers up the Hudson River from New York City to Albany.

    In 1807 Fulton launched his steamboat, the Clermont. The boat made the 150-mile (241 km) trip from New York City to Albany in 32 hours. Using only sails, the trip would have taken four days.

    The Clermont offered many comforts. Passengers could sit or stroll on deck or relax in sleeping compartments below deck. The engine was noisy, but its power provided a smooth ride.

    Steamboats ushered in a new age of river travel. Shipping goods and moving people became cheaper and faster. Regular steamboat service began along the Mississippi River, between New Orleans and Natchez, Mississippi, in 1812. Steamboats also contributed to the growth of river cities such as Cincinnati and St. Louis. By 1850 some 700 steamboats were carrying cargo and passengers within the United States.


    LESSON 2

    Moving West

    ESSENTIAL QUESTION How does geography influence the way people live?


    New Waterways

    Steamboats improved transportation but were limited to major rivers. No such river linked the East and the West.

    Business and government officials led by DeWitt Clinton in New York developed a plan to connect New York City with the Great Lakes region. They would build a canal—an artificial waterway—across the state. The canal would connect the Hudson River with Buffalo on Lake Erie. From these points, existing rivers and lakes could connect a much wider area.

    The Erie Canal

    Thousands of workers, many of them Irish immigrants, helped build the 363-mile (584 km) Erie Canal. Along the way they built a series of locks—separate compartments in which workers could raise or lower the water level. The locks worked like an escalator to raise and lower boats up and down hills.

    Canal building was a hazardous task. Many workers died as a result of cave-ins or blasting accidents. Another threat was disease, which bred in the swamps where the workers toiled.

    After more than eight years of hard work, the Erie Canal opened on October 26, 1825. Clinton, who was now governor of New York, boarded a barge in Buffalo and traveled on the canal to Albany. From there he sailed down the Hudson River to New York City. As crowds cheered, officials poured water from Lake Erie into the Atlantic Ocean.

    Canal Travel Expands

    At first, the Erie Canal did not allow steamboats because their powerful engines could cause damage to the canal's earthen banks. Instead, teams of mules or horses hauled the boats and barges. A two-horse team pulled a 100-ton (91 t) barge about 24 miles (39 km) in one day. This was fast compared with travel by wagon. In the 1840s, workers strengthened the canal banks so that steam tugboats could pull the barges.

    The Erie Canal's success did not go unnoticed. By 1850 the country had more than 3,600 miles (5,794 km) of canals. Canals lowered shipping costs and brought prosperity to towns along their routes. They also linked regions of a growing country.

    Finding the Main Idea Why were canals built?


    LESSON 2

    Moving West

    ESSENTIAL QUESTION How does geography influence the way people live?


    The Move West Continues

    Why did Americans tend to settle near rivers?

    The United States added four new states between 1791 and 1803—Vermont, and the western states of Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. Then, between 1816 and 1821, Indiana, Illinois, Mississippi, Alabama, and Missouri also became states.

    The formation of new states reflected the dramatic growth of the region west of the Appalachians. In 1800 only 387,000 white settlers lived west of the Appalachian Mountains. By 1820 that number had grown to more than 2.4 million people. Ohio, for example, had only 45,000 settlers in 1800. By 1820 it had 581,000 residents.

    Early pioneer families often settled in communities along the great rivers, such as the Ohio and the Mississippi. These waterways provided a highway for shipping crops and other goods to markets. The growth of canals also helped expand the area open to settlement. Canals allowed people to settle on lands farther from the large rivers.

    People often preferred to settle with others from their original homes. It was mainly people from Tennessee and Kentucky who settled Indiana, for example. Michigan’s pioneers came mostly from New England.

    Western families often gathered together for social events. Men took part in sports such as wrestling. Women met for quilting and sewing parties. Both men and women took part in cornhuskings. These were gatherings where farm families shared the work of stripping the outer layers from corn.

    Life in the West did not have many of the conveniences of Eastern town life. The pioneers had not traveled to the West to live a pampered life. They wanted to make new lives for themselves and their families.

    At the same time, these new settlers brought with them many of the same hopes and dreams held by people in the East. In this way, the western migration of American pioneers helped spread an American culture and way of life.

    Describing What was life like for families on the western frontier?





    LESSON 3

    Unity and Sectionalism

    ESSENTIAL QUESTION Why does conflict develop?


    Although national pride was evident throughout the country, each region—North, South, and West—wanted to further its own economic

     and political interests.

    National Unity

    How did the country change after the War of 1812?

    With the end of the War of 1812, the intense divisions that once split the nation seemed gone. In their place was a feeling of unity. In the 1816

    presidential election, James Monroe, the Republican candidate, faced no serious opposition. The Federalists, weakened by doubts about their

    loyalty during the war, barely survived as a national party. Monroe won the election by an overwhelming margin.

    A Boston newspaper called this time the Era of Good Feelings. The new president was a living, breathing symbol of this mood. Monroe

    had been involved in national politics since the American Revolution. He wore breeches, or knee-length pants, and powdered wigs—styles

    no longer in fashion. Yet with his sense of dignity, Monroe represented a united country, free of political strife.

    Outgoing President James Madison's last message to Congress in 1817 expressed a growing nationalism, or strong loyalty to the nation.

    The War of 1812 had made clear that Jefferson's ideal of a limited central government could not meet the needs of a nation in times of crisis.

    Sounding more like a Federalist than a Republican, Madison urged the federal government to guide the growth of trade and industry.

     The large Republican majority in Congress agreed. The Republicans, who had once strongly supported states rights, now promoted federal


    Henry Clay's American System

    Henry Clay, a Republican and speaker of the house, proposed a nationalist program to help the nation grow. Clay's American System aimed

     to help the economy in each section of the country and increase the power of the federal government. Clay called for higher tariffs, a new

     Bank of the United States, and internal improvements, including the building of roads, bridges, and canals.

    Not all congressional leaders agreed with Clay, and they did not accept all of his ideas. Congress did not spend much money on internal

     improvements, but other parts of the American System did become law.

    The Second Bank of the United States

    The charter for the First Bank of the United States expired in 1811, and Congress let the bank die. In 1816 the Republican majority in

     Congress brought the national bank back to life. President Madison signed the bill creating the Second Bank of the United States.


    LESSON 3

    Unity and Sectionalism

    ESSENTIAL QUESTION Why does conflict develop?


    After the First Bank closed, many state banks had acted unwisely. They made too many loans and allowed too much money into circulation.

    These actions led to inflation, a rise in the prices of goods. As prices rose, American families could buy less and less with each dollar. The

    absence of a national bank also meant the federal government had no safe place to keep its funds. The Second Bank of the United States

     restored order to the money supply, helping American businesses to grow.

    Competition From Britain

    Another challenge facing the economy was a flood of British goods following the War of 1812. British factories often had more advanced

    technology and methods than American factories. The British turned out goods of higher quality and at a lower price than goods made in

    the United States. Naturally, buyers preferred these goods. By flooding the United States with their goods, the British hoped to keep American

    businesses from competing.

    New Tariffs

    American manufacturers called for high tariffs to protect their growing industries. To address this problem, Congress passed the Tariff of 1816.

    Unlike earlier revenue tariffs, which were meant to provide income for the federal government, this tariff was designed to protect American

    manufacturers from foreign competition by placing high taxes on imports. Merchants who paid the tariff on imported goods simply added the

    cost of the tariff to their prices. This made imported items more expensive for consumers and encouraged them to buy cheaper, American-

    made goods.

    When Congress passed protective tariffs in 1818 and 1824 that were even higher than the Tariff of 1816, some Americans protested.

    Southerners were especially angry. They felt that the tariff protected Northern manufacturers at their expense. The South had few factories,

     so people there saw little benefit from high tariffs. What the Southern states did see were higher prices for the goods they had to buy.

    Growing Sectionalism

    The tariff dispute illustrated a growing sectionalism (SEHK • shuh • nuh • lih • zuhm)—differences in the goals and interests of different

    parts of the country. Such differences had existed since colonial times. Now, it seemed, they were growing sharper. In fact, they soon

    brought an end to the Era of Good Feelings.

    In the early 1800s, three distinct sections developed in the United States—the North, the South, and the West. The North included New

    England and the Mid-Atlantic states. The South covered what is now the Southeast. The West included the area between the Appalachian

    Mountains and the Mississippi River. Geography, economics, and history all contributed to sectional differences and differing ways of life

     in the United States. As the differences grew deeper, however, people began to wonder whether sectionalism might divide the nation.


    LESSON 3

    Unity and Sectionalism

    ESSENTIAL QUESTION Why does conflict develop?


    Each section of the country had a strong voice in Congress in the early 1800s. Henry Clay of Kentucky represented the West. John C.

     Calhoun of South Carolina spoke for Southern interests. Daniel Webster of Massachusetts protected the interests of New England. Each

     leader, although nationalist, remained concerned with protecting the interests of his own section of the country.

    Nationalism and the Supreme Court

    In three decisions in the early 1800s, the Supreme Court backed the powers of the national government over the states. During this time,

     Chief Justice John Marshall provided strong leadership.

    In the case of Fletcher v. Peck in 1810, the Court ruled that courts could declare acts of a state government void if they violated provisions

    of the Constitution. Then, in 1819, the Court decided the case of McCulloch v. Maryland. It said that the state of Maryland could not tax the

     local office of the Bank of the United States because it was the property of the national government. Allowing such a tax, the Court said,

     would give states too much power over the national government.

    The Court also ruled that the national bank was constitutional, even though the Constitution did not specifically give Congress the power to

     create a bank. Marshall observed that the Constitution specifically gave Congress power to issue money, borrow money, and collect taxes.

    Congress could also, he reasoned, do whatever was "necessary and proper" to carry out those powers.

    In 1824 the Court again ruled in favor of federal government power in Gibbons v. Ogden. The state of New York had granted a monopoly

     (muh • NAH • puh • lee)—sole control of an industry—to a steamship operator running ships between New York and New Jersey. Under

    New York's law, no other operator could run steamboats on the same route. The Supreme Court said that only Congress had the power to

     make laws governing interstate commerce, or trade between states.

    Missouri Statehood

    In 1819 the Missouri Territory asked Congress for admission as a state. Most Missouri settlers had come from Kentucky and Tennessee,

    which allowed slavery. They believed slavery ought to be legal in Missouri.

    Representative James Tallmadge proposed that Missouri gradually abolish slavery in order to be admitted to the Union. The House passed

    this plan, but the Senate blocked it.

    At the time, the population in the North was slightly larger than in the slave states of the South. Consequently, the North had 105 members

    in the House of Representatives compared to the South's 81 members. Representation in the Senate was balanced, with 11 slave states and

     11 free states. The addition of Missouri as a free state would put the South in the minority in both houses of Congress.




    LESSON 3

    Unity and Sectionalism

    ESSENTIAL QUESTION Why does conflict develop?


    The Missouri Compromise

    Debates in Congress heated to the boiling point. Fearing a split in the Union, Henry Clay suggested the Missouri Compromise. Clay proposed

    that Maine, in the Northeast, enter the Union as a free state. Missouri could then enter as a slave state. This would keep an even balance

    of power in the Senate—12 free states and 12 slave states.

    The Missouri Compromise also addressed the question of slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase territory. The compromise drew a line

    west from the southern boundary of Missouri—at 36°30' N latitude. The compromise blocked slavery north of the line but permitted it south

     of the line.

    The Missouri Compromise promised a temporary solution to sectional conflict. It did nothing to solve the basic problem, however. Americans

     who moved west took their different ways of life with them. White Southerners wanted to take an economy based on slavery to their new

    homes. Northerners believed in labor by free people and wanted to establish that in the West. It was a disagreement that seemed to have no

    peaceful solution.

    Explaining Describe how the Supreme Court's decisions affected the power of the federal government.



    LESSON 3

    Unity and Sectionalism

    ESSENTIAL QUESTION Why does conflict develop?


    Foreign Affairs

    How did the United States define its role in the Americas?

    The War of 1812 heightened Americans' pride in their country. Americans also realized that the United States had to establish a new relationship with the "Old World"—the powers of Europe.

    Relations with Britain

    In the 1817 Rush-Bagot Agreement, the United States and Britain agreed to limit the number of armed naval vessels on the Great Lakes. Each country was to take apart or destroy other armed ships on the Great Lakes.

    The Convention of 1818 set the northern boundary of the Louisiana Territory between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. The convention also created a secure border. Each country agreed to maintain its border without armed forces. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams also negotiated the right of Americans to settle in the Oregon Country.

    Relations with Spain

    Spain owned the colonies of East Florida and West Florida. In 1810 American settlers in West Florida rebelled against Spanish rule. The United States government then argued that West Florida was included in the Louisiana Purchase. In 1810 and 1812, the United States took control of sections of West Florida.

    The territory claimed by the United States reached west to the borders of Louisiana and Mississippi. Spain objected to losing part of West Florida but took no action against the United States.

    Native Americans living in Spanish East Florida sometimes raided American settlements in Georgia. General Andrew Jackson was ordered to stop these Seminole raids. Jackson believed his order included pursuing the Seminoles into the Florida colonies. In the spring of 1818, another general, William McIntosh, led Creek Indian allies against the Seminoles in Georgia. Meanwhile, Jackson followed fleeing Seminoles into Spanish West Florida. After pursuing the Seminoles, Jackson and his troops moved farther into West Florida. There they seized the Spanish forts at Pensacola and San Marcos. Secretary of State Adams had not authorized Jackson's actions, but he did nothing to stop them or to punish Jackson.


    LESSON 3

    Unity and Sectionalism

    ESSENTIAL QUESTION Why does conflict develop?


    Jackson's raid demonstrated American military strength compared to that of Spain. Secretary of State Adams believed that the Spanish did not want war and wanted to settle the dispute. Adams was correct, and with the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819, Spain ceded, or gave up control of, all claims and ownership to both East and West Florida. They also gave up claims to Oregon Country in the Pacific Northwest, while the United States agreed to Spanish control of Texas.

    Spain Loses Power

    Meanwhile, Spain was losing power elsewhere in its vast empire. In 1810 a priest named Miguel Hidalgo (ee • DAHL • goh) led a rebellion in Mexico. Hidalgo called for racial equality and the redistribution of land. The Spanish captured and executed Hidalgo, but by 1821 Mexico had gained its independence from Spain.

    Simón Bolívar, also known as "the Liberator," led the independence movement that won freedom for the present-day countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Bolivia, and Ecuador. José de San Martín successfully achieved independence for Chile and Peru. By 1824 Spain had lost control of most of South America.

    The Monroe Doctrine

    In 1822 four European nations—France, Austria, Russia, and Prussia—discussed a plan to help Spain regain its American holdings. The possibility of increased European involvement in the Americas troubled President Monroe. There were also concerns about Russia's intentions for controlling land in the Northwest.

    The president issued a statement on December 2, 1823: The United States would not get involved in the internal affairs or wars in Europe. It also would not interfere with any existing European colonies in the Americas. At the same time, the statement said, North and South America "are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers." The Monroe Doctrine, as the statement came to be known, served as a clear warning to European nations to keep out of the Americas. It became a guiding force in American foreign policy in the decades ahead.

    Summarizing Why did Spain finally give up Florida to the United States?




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